Marta Minujín was born in Buenos Aires in 1943. She studied at the national schools of fine arts. She lives and works in Buenos Aires.
HAPPENINGS AND PERFORMANCES

1963
Le Coq [The Cock]
Marta Minujín with Jean-Jacques Lebel presented the happening Le Coq at the Galerie Raymond Cordier in Paris. During the happening, the French actor Daniel Pommereulle plucked Minujín, while he was crowing nonstop.

La destrucción [The Destruction]
Minujín organized an exhibition of her production from the last three years on an empty lot on the Impasse Ronsin, in Paris. The exhibition included works of others artists, such as Christo and Lourdes Castro. On June 6, Minujín invited her colleagues and friends to a collective destruction of her works. The action took place at two different times. First, each guest modified Minujín's objetcs. Then, all the works burned in a bonfire.

1964
Cabalgata [Cavalcade]
Minujín transmitted the happening Cabalgata live from the television studios of Channel 7 in Buenos Aires: several horses "painted" mattresses with buckets of paint tied to their tails, while a group of athletes popped balloons and two rock musicians were wrapped up in adhesive tape. Cabalgata was executed with the collaboration of Pablo Suárez, Marilú Marini, Alfredo Rodríguez Arias, and Graciela Martínez.

1965
Suceso Plástico [Plastic Event]
Suceso Plástico took place on Sunday, July 25, at the Peñarol soccer stadium in Montevideo (Uruguay). The event included a group of motorcyclists, twenty fat ladies, twenty athletes, twenty wedding couples wrapped up in adhesive tape, and young girls who went around kissing the audience. Minujín arrived at the stadium by helicopter and threw away five hundred live chickens, lettuce, and flour, over participants.

El obelisco dulce [Sweet Obelisk]
Minujín covered the Buenos Aires Obelisk with "Laponia" ice cream, while Raúl Escari, Roberto Jacoby, and Pablo Suárez licked it.

Leyendo las noticias [Reading the News]
Minujín got into the Río de La Plata wrapped in newspapers.

1966
Simultaneidad en Simultaneidad [Simultaneity in Simultaneity] October 13 and 24.
Simultaneidad en Simultaneidad was the local episode of the international project Three Countries Happening, which conceived between Minujín, the American artist Allan Kaprow (from New York), and the German Wolf Vostell (from Berlin). Part of the happening consisted of three events that played in three cities at the same time. Minujín defined her happening as "environment signal". She presented it with the collaboration of Leopoldo Maler, at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella [Torcuato Di Tella Institute]. Simultaneidad en Simultaneidad was designed by the artist in two steps. The first phase, entitled "Invasión instantánea" ["Instantaneous Invasion"], consisted of an event to be simultaneously transmitted by radio, TV, telephone, and telegraph. On Monday, October 24, one hundred and twenty preselected persons, whose had been photographed, filmed and recorded in their homes, were "invaded" by media. During ten minutes, said Minujín, they were "captives of the communications media." The second phase, entitled "Simultaneidad envolvente" ["Enveloping Simultaneity"], took place in two parts at the Di Tella Institute. On Thursday, October 13, Minujín invited sixty personalities from the cultural and journalistic world, whose were photographed and filmed, while they sat down in front of a TV set with a transistor radio. When they went out, each was asked to give their opinion of the event and of the media in general. Eleven days later, the same sixty persons came back to the Institute. As they went to their corresponding seats, they watched themselves (their images, their gestures and movements) reflected on the screens of their TV sets and in slides which were proyected at the sides, while they listened to them own voices transmitted over the radio.

Prune Flat
Minujín did a remake in Buenos Aires of a happening by the American artist Robert Whitman, entitled Prune Flat (1965). While a film by Whitman was shown on a screen at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella, Minujín, Marilú Marini, and Marucha Bó, dressed in white, imitated the movements of the figures in the film, which was projected on their bodies.

1967
Circuit
Minujín was invited to the Expo 67, a Montreal World Fair which coincided with the 100th Anniversary of Canadian Confederation. On April 28, she presented Circuit at the Youth Pavilion. Six days before, newspapers in Montreal published a questionnaire (name, sex, height, weight, hair, mouth, eyes, humor, attire). Interested persons in Minujín's work, were asked to fill out the questionnaire and send it to the artist before April 25. A computer processed the responses and produced three lists of participants with similar traits. Only those whose had answered the questionnaire, were allowed to participate in Circuit. The participants were asked to come to the Youth Pavilion's entrance door at 5:30 PM, with their portable radios. The people in the first group were instructed to go to the Pavilion's auditorium. The second group went to an area called "Agora". The third group formed a line at the entrance of the theater. The participants at the auditorium saw simultaneously images from different media: their own situation on an enlarged TV projection, the situation of the third group at the auditorium's entrance, transmitted by six monitors placed in front of the seats, slides of the outside of the Pavilion projected in the walls, the Orson Welles' Citizen Kane, showed in three large screens, placed on stage, and an episode of the series of Batman. The purpose of the experience was to compare the different times of different media. The participants listened their own voices and sounds, as well as those of the third group, through their portable radios, tuned in two specified stations. Several loudspeakers permitted participants at the auditorium to hear what was happening with the third group. On a mobile stage, another eigth participants watched a videotape, which had been recorded the day before. Forty TV sets were placed among the seats, tuned in different channels. At 6 o'clock the participants were asked to turn the dials of their TV sets and tuned a specified channel, in order to see the Superheterodyne. At the Agora, the second group observed the situations of the other two. The persons in the third group only followed the actions which took place into the theater by enlarged projections, loundspeakers and radio transmissions, and their own images taken with a Polaroid and projected on the outside walls. When the experience finished, each group traded places with another and the circuit was reinitiated.

1969
La imagen eléctrica [The Electric Image]
La imagen eléctrica was an "environment happening" which took place at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella. Minujín combined audiovisual media and theatrical techniques in this work.

1970
Festival de la vida [Festival of Life]
Festival de la vida was organized by the Centro de Arte y Comunicación [Center of Art and Communication] and presented in the Teatro Payró [Payró Theater] in Buenos Aires. The work consisted of a slideshow of New York (Minujín touring Central Park) and the "Kama Sutra", with music from India and incense. After the presentation, the audience was forced to withdraw by a fumigator that sprayed their with DDT.

1971
Buenos Aires Hoy. ¡Ya! [Buenos Aires Today. Right Now!]
Buenos Aires Hoy. ¡Ya!, a work called by Minujín "film-ppening", was presented on September 14 and 15 at the Escuela Panamericana de Arte [Pan American School of Arts] in Buenos Aires. The film-ppening consisted of simultaneous projecting of three films by means of two Super-8 machines and one 16 mm, while five actors created different situations. The films were shot between July and September 1971, under Minujín's direction with photography by Eduardo Pla, in the homes of tens known personalities (such as the actress Graciela Borges and the sculptor Gyula Kosice) and other locations. Buenos Aires Hoy. ¡Ya! was designed by Minujín in three parts, called Noticiero [Newscast], Teatro con la vida [Theater with Life], and El retorno a las fuentes [Return to the Sources].

1972
Interpenning.
The Interpenning took place on August 11 and 12 at the Sculpture Garden of The Museum of Modern Art in New York, with the collaboration of fifteen guides ("Interpenactors"), whose were dressed in blue and green uniforms, and technical assistance and drums by Gary Glover. The Interpenactors approached unsuspecting persons of different ages, whose were visited the Museum, and invited them to take part in the Interppening. The participants crossed a corridor of high-frequency sounds to enter the "interppening" area, sorrounded by an another barrier of ultrasonic waves, an "invisible architecture" designed by the Chilean artist Juan Downey. Then the participants sat inside drawn and numbered triangles and recited phrases in unison with the guides, whose circulated among them. The idea of this unique ritual was to break the patters and rules of an existing social situation and to create new patters of interaction in which people participate more actively and more consciously.

1973
Nicappening.
On June 12, Minujín and a group of performers went into Sotheby Parke Bernet in New York, where took place an auction to benefit victims of an earthquake in Managua (Nicaragua), shouting for the victims and staining with paint to the participants.

Kidnappening.
On August 3 and 4, Minujín presented Kidnappening at The Museum of Modern Art in New York. This happening was directed by Gary Glover and combined opera, poetry and dance. Forty actors collaborated in the experience. The actors' faces were made up to resemble Picasso's Cubist paintings. Their repertoire of movements and gestures were inspired in Greek sculpture and Romantic painting. The phrases they pronounced were took from the poems of William Blake, Arthur Rimbaud, Stephane Mallarmé, and Ezra Pound, accompanied by statements from artists speaking about art. At 9 PM, during a cocktail party on the terrace of the Museum, the performens were silently surrounded people in the main garden. Then, they walked through the assembled group, gesticulating and singing. Fifteen pre-selected spectators were "kidnapped". The performers took out them and drove each "victim" to a different destination, including a Soho artist's studio, an apartment on the Upper East Side, a restaurant, and a concert, following Minujín's plan for an "innocent adventure in creative activity."

1974
Imago - Flowing.
Imago - Flowing took place on Tuesday, September 24 at the Central Park in New York. It designed by the artist in several steps. Imago-Flowing "began to flow" at 7:30 PM, when forty actors improvised situations on a stage. Later, with torches lit and singing "Fire changes all things and all things changes fire", the performers headed a procession of spectators through the Park. Thirty pre-selected persons from the audience were took by the performers to Madison Avenue Restaurant, where a group of intellectuals (Susan Sontag, Michael Kirby, George Segal, and others) were waited them. At the restaurant, the guests were served a formal banquet (Black Champagne and Black Caviar) while the actors murmured and whistled around them. At 9:30 PM, when the banquet finished, Imago-Flowing "ceased to flow."

Opebuai
The "opera happening" Opebuai took place at the Teatro Astral [Astral Theater], in Buenos Aires.

Four presents.
Four presents was a video-performance carried out in collaboration with Julian Cairol. It took place at Stefanotty Gallery in New York on October 8. Fifty spectators were invited to sit on a numbered grid on the floor, in front to three televisions labeled "past", "present", and "future".

1977
Repollos [Cabbages]
This action took place on September 29 at the Museu de Arte Contemporânea de São Paulo [Museum of Contemporary Art in São Paulo]. Twenty performers dressed in white and with green plastic buckets on their heads, ordered cabbages in a square layout on the floor while they sang: "This is an art context, where theory is practice. This is a manipulation of natural sources". When the performers left the room, the cabbages were signed and passed out as works of art. Cabbages was part of Minujín's experiments called "Arte Agrícola" [Agrarian Art] in action.



Toronjas [Grapefruits] On November Minujín presented a new "Agrarian Art" experiment, entitled Toronjas. It took place at the Museo Universitario de Ciencias y Arte [University Museum of Sciences and Art] in Mexico, on the occasion of the exhibition Veintiún artistas argentinos [Twenty-one Argentinean Artists], organized by the Centro de Arte y Comunicación [Center of Art and Communication]. Twenty people, dressed in white with orange buckets covering their heads, spread over the floor 3,000 grapefruits, while sang onomatopoeic phrases alluding to the work's sense.

1979
Naranjas [Oranges]
Naranjas was presented at the Centro de Arte y Comunicación [Center of Art and Communication] in Buenos Aires. Twenty people ordered oranges in a square layout on the floor while they sang.

1981
De Amarú a Barthes [From Amarú to Barthes]
Minujín and Leopoldo Maler designed De Amarú a Barthes, "an action of metaphysical illusory" which took place on May 19, at the Plaza de Toros [Bullring] in Medellin (Colombia). The event was organized by the Museo de Arte Moderno [Museum of Modern Art] in that city. The performance was a "collage" of unusual situations and included forty performers, twenty four bales of hay, twelve horses, ten trumpeters, four art critics, and three chromatic bodies.

1997
Arte y Pancartas [Arts & Banners]
Arte y Pancartas was a "linguistic and visual poem" which was presented by Minujín in the International Fair Arte Córdoba '99 (Córdoba, Argentina), and in the Muestra Internacional de Performance [International Show of Performance] at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes [National Institute of Fine Arts] in Mexico.

2008
Operación Perfume and Arte encapsulado.
It was an invisible artcion in which Minujin, along with other participants dressed with white overalls and equipped with fumigation devices, created an invisible barrier of perfume that the audience had to go through in order to enter the exhibition Sout Limit / Limite Sud. The artcion was done during the opening day, with clarinetists playing and during the last day of the event, with participants shouting "art, art, art". Inside the exhibition rooms, Minujín presented Arte Encapsulado, a series of sculptures-bottles crowned by the artist´s head, containing an original drawing and a bottle of perfume on the inside. Those who bought it had to choose between The Outside or The Inside, between keeping the sculpture or breaking it and getting what it had in the inside.

2009
Operación Perfume
Marta Minujín was invited to redo her performance on the occasion of the 41st Artist's National Salon at Cali. She freed messenger pigeons and walked down the city centre's streets spreading perfume with a group of volunteers and art students wearing white overalls.

Rayuelarte
This action of ephemeral art and mass participation was done by Marta Minujín on March the 21st from 6 to 7 p.m. at Buenos Aire´s largest Avenue 9 de Julio. Traffic was cut and everyone was invited to be part of the situation created by 120 hopscotchs sticked to the floor and 120 magic stones created by the artist, ninety sax players intensified the action and people played simultaneously on the street. The event lasted 1 hour and the participants were very happy and relaxed. "Rayuelarte" was an homage to the Argentinean writer Julio Cortázar.

5 pregnant women
Marta Minujín was invited to Stuttgart, Germany to be part of the festival "Subversive Practices. Art under Conditions of Political Repression. 60s–80s / South America / Europe" ( May 30 – August 2, 2009, Württembergischer Kunstverein). She created along with Gabor Altorjay "5 pregnant women", a performance in which he entered her inside a box, gave away signed corns to the jealous attendants and danced along with 5 pregnant women dressed in white in whose bellies images were projected.

Rayuelarte
Marta Minujín was invited to this action of massive participation art at the 29th edition of the International Santiago Book Fair, Santiago de Chile, Chile. On Saturday November the 7th she invited the audience to play hopscotch at the Mapocho Square to celebrate Argentina being the main guest at the Fair.

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